Mainly, that they get unfairly detained by cops because of what they look like. A Columbia Law School professor concurs in a blistering new report that casts even further doubt on the NYPD’s controversial stop-and-frisk strategy, which basically amounts to racial profiling and is ripe with abuse. Wait, it took a study to prove this? Yup.

The results are unsettling, but not all that shocking for a police force that costs the city hundreds of millions of dollars in settlements over misconduct by its officers:

Professor Fagan found that in more than 30 percent of stops, officers either lacked the kind of suspicion necessary to make a stop constitutional or did not include sufficient detail on police forms to determine if the stops were legally justified. The study also found that even accounting for crime patterns in the city’s various neighborhoods, officers stopped minorities at disproportionate rates.